**MATH 1. Mathematical Reasoning.**Recommended for students whose majors do not include a specific mathematics requirement. Objectives are to show some of the essence and quality of mathematics, and to enhance precision in the evaluation and expression of ideas, thereby developing a student's quantitative reasoning skills. Designed to give students an understanding of some of the vocabulary, methods, and reasoning of mathematics with a focus on ideas.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 9 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; and completion of ELM requirement.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 9. Essentials of Algebra and Trigonometry.**Prepares students, especially in bioscience, economics and social science, for courses requiring basic algebra and trigonometry. Topics: measurement and scientific notation; review of basic algebra; factoring; laws of exponents; linear and quadratic equations; Cartesian coordinates and graphing; the trigonometric functions and their basic identities; solutions of right triangles; the laws of sines, cosines and tangents; solutions of general triangles; logarithms.

**Note:**Applicable to workload credit for establishing full-time enrollment status, but not applicable to the baccalaureate degree.

**Prerequisite:**One year each of high school algebra and geometry; and a passing score on the Elementary Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Remedial Grade Basis.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 11. Algebra for College Students.**Prepares students for Precalculus and other courses requiring algebra. Linear equations and inequalities, absolute value equations and inequalities, systems of linear equations, quadratic equations, polynomial expressions and equations, rational expressions and equations, roots and radicals, and exponential and logarithmic equations.

**Note:**Applicable to workload credit for establishing full-time enrollment status, but not applicable to the baccalaureate degree.

**Prerequisite:**A passing score on the Elementary Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Remedial Grade Basis.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 15H. Honors Mathematical Reasoning.**Introduction to the composition and interpretation of mathematical ideas and to the mathematical reasoning necessary to derive results in a variety of mathematical topics. Emphasis on developing concepts and analyzing results.

**Prerequisite:**Open only to Honors students.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 17. An Introduction to Exploration, Conjecture, and Proof in Mathematics.**Prepares students for MATH 107A and MATH 107B. Students will explore mathematical patterns and relations, formulate conjectures, and prove their conjectures. Topics from number theory, probability and statistics, and geometry.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 9 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 24. Modern Business Mathematics.**Mathematics for business world, including functions, math of finance, linear programming and rates of change. Applications to economics and business will be emphasized throughout.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 9 or three years of high school math that includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 26A. Calculus I for the Social and Life Sciences.**Limits, differentiation with applications, integration and applications in the Social Sciences and Life Sciences.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 11 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 26B. Calculus II for the Social and Life Sciences.**Continuation of MATH 26A, integration and applications to the Social Sciences and Life Sciences. Multi-variate analysis including partial differentiation and maximization subject to constraints; elementary differential equations; sequences and series. Calculus of the trigonometric functions as time allows.

**Note:**Not open to students already having credit for MATH 31 or equivalent.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 26A or appropriate high school based AP credit.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 29. Pre-Calculus Mathematics.**Designed to prepare students for calculus. Topics: trigonometry, points and lines in the Cartesian plane; lines and planes in space; transformation of coordinates; the conics; graphs of algebraic relations; the elementary transcendental functions.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 11 or three years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of ELM requirement and Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 29A. Pre-Calculus Mathematics A.**First semester of a two semester course that is designed to prepare students for calculus. Topics: functions and graphs, polynomial functions, rational functions and applications. Lecture two hours.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 11 or three years of high school mathematics that includes two years of algebra and one year of geometry; completion of the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Corequisite:**MATH 29L.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 29B. Pre-Calculus Mathematics B.**Second semester of a two semester course that is designed to prepare students for calculus. Topics: exponential and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions, analytic geometry, and applications. Lecture two hours.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 29A.

**Corequisite:**MATH 29M.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 29L. Lab for Pre-Calculus Math A.**Workshop designed to deepen the understanding of pre-calculus developed in MATH 29A.

**Note:**May be taken for workload credit toward establishing full-time enrollment status, but is not applicable to the baccalaureate degree. Laboratory: 3 hours.

**Corequisite:**MATH 29B.

**Graded:**Remedial Grade Basis.

**Units:**1.0

**MATH 29M. Lab for Pre-Calculus Math B.**Workshop designed to deepen the understanding of pre-calculus developed in MATH 29B.

**Note:**May be taken for workload credit toward establishing full-time enrollment status, but is not applicable to the baccalaureate degree. Laboratory: 3 hours.

**Corequisite:**MATH 29B.

**Graded:**Remedial Grade Basis.

**Units:**1.0

**MATH 30. Calculus I.**Functions and their graphs; limits; the derivative and some of its applications; trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and their inverses; the integral; the fundamental theorem; some applications of the integral.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 29 or four years of high school mathematics which includes two years of algebra, one year of geometry, and one year of mathematical analysis; completion of ELM requirement and Pre-Calculus Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 30L. Laboratory for First Semester Calculus.**Workshop designed to deepen the understanding of calculus developed in MATH 30.

**Note:**May be taken for workload credit toward establishing full-time enrollment status, but is not applicable to the baccalaureate degree. Laboratory: 3 hours.

**Corequisite:**Enrollment in a designated section of MATH 30.

**Graded:**Credit / No Credit.

**Units:**1.0

**MATH 31. Calculus II.**MATH 30 continuation. Methods of integration; improper integrals; analytic geometry; infinite sequences and series.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 30 or appropriate high school based AP credit.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 31L. Laboratory for Second Semester Calculus.**Workshop designed to deepen the understanding of calculus developed in MATH 31.

**Note:**May be taken for workload credit toward establishing full-time enrollment status, but is not applicable to the baccalaureate degree. Laboratory: 3 hours.

**Corequisite:**Enrollment in a designated section of MATH 31.

**Graded:**Credit / No Credit.

**Units:**1.0

**MATH 32. Calculus III.**Continuation of Calculus II. Algebra and calculus of vectors; functions of several variables; partial differentiation; multiple integration; vector analysis.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 35. Introduction to Linear Algebra.**Careful development of matrices, systems of equations, determinants, vector spaces, linear transformations, orthogonality, real and complex eigenvalues; R3 viewed as a vector space with generalization to Rn.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 30 or appropriate high school based AP credit.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 45. Differential Equations for Science and Engineering.**First order differential equations, second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Laplace transforms, small systems of linear differential equations, numerical methods, introduction to second order differential equations with variable coefficients.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 99. Special Problems.**Individual projects or directed reading.

**Note:**Open only to students who appear competent to carry on individual work; admission requires the approval of the faculty member under whom individual work is to be conducted, and approval of the advisor and the Department Chair.

**Graded:**Graded (CR/NC Available).

**Units:**1.0 - 6.0.

**MATH 100. Applied Linear Algebra.**Linear algebra and its elementary applications. Topics: Matrix algebra; simultaneous linear equations; linear dependence and vector spaces; rank and inverses; determinants; numerical solution of simultaneous linear equations; linear transformations; eigenvalues and eigenvectors; unitary and similarity transformations; quadratic forms.

**Note:**May not be taken for credit toward a mathematics major.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 26B or MATH 31.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 101. Combinatorics.**Introduction to the art of counting. The focus will be on actually listing the objects being counted in small cases and using the knowledge gained in working with small cases to build toward general principles. Sum and product principles, models of counting, permutations and combinations, equivalence relations and partitions, inclusion-exclusion principle, recurrence relations, and generating functions.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 102. Number Theory.**Theory of divisibility; some number theoretical functions; congruencies (linear and quadratic); some Diophantine equations. Simple continued fractions.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 104. Vector Analysis.**Vector and scalar fields, integral theorems, orthogonal curvilinear coordinates, vector spaces and linear transformations, applications to physical fields and operators.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 32.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 105A. Advanced Mathematics for Science and Engineering I.**Survey of second order linear differential equations, power series and Fourier series solutions, solution of partial differential equations by separation of variables.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 32, MATH 45.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 105B. Advanced Mathematics for Science and Engineering II.**Partial differential equations continued, complex function theory and its applications. Prerequisite: MATH 105A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**4.0

**MATH 107A. Fundamental Mathematical Concepts.**First half of a one-year course in the structure of the real number system and its sub-systems and in the basic properties and concepts of geometry. Topics will include: definitions and properties of set theory and their use in the development of the natural and whole number systems, definitions and properties of the arithmetic relations and operations for the natural numbers, whole numbers, integers.

**Note:**May not be taken for credit toward a mathematics major or minor.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 17 and passing score on the Intermediate Algebra Diagnostic Test.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 107B. Fundamental Mathematical Concepts.**Continuation of MATH 107A. Topics will include: rational numbers, real numbers, measurement, Euclidean Geometry.

**Note:**May not be taken for credit toward a mathematics major or minor.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 107A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 107C. Elementary Mathematics and the Learning Process.**Students will build on their understanding of material of Math 17, Math 107A/B by deepening their understanding of the concepts taught in these courses. This will be done by examining these concepts in relationship to theories of learning and development. Students will examine mathematical concepts related to K-8 with respect to the treatment of reasoning, communication, and the perspective of cognitive and social constructivism; and throughout the course will consider the question of "What is mathematics?" and "How is mathematics learned?"

**Prerequisite:**Math 17, Math 107A/B, and CHDV 30 or CHDV 35.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 108. Introduction to Formal Mathematics.**Logic of mathematical proof, set theory, relations, functions. Examples and applications from set cardinality, algebra, and analysis.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31, MATH 35.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 110A. Modern Algebra.**First half of a one-year introductory course in algebraic concepts. Topics include: groups, subgroups, properties of groups, permutation groups, factor groups, homomorphism theorems. Prerequisite: MATH 108.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 110B. Modern Algebra.**Continuation of MATH 110A. Note: Topics include: rings and fields. Applications may be selected from lattice, machine, and coding theories. Prerequisite: MATH 110A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 117. Linear Algebra.**Abstract linear spaces and linear transformations; invariant subspaces; canonical forms. Prerequisite: MATH 110A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 121. College Geometry.**Study of the axioms and theorems of Euclidean geometry. A comparison of several geometry axiom systems and their theorems, including those of some non-Euclidean and finite geometries.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31; MATH 32 or MATH 35.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 130A. Functions of a Real Variable.**First half of a one-year upper division course in functions of a real variable. The first semester will consist of a rigorous development of the theory of real-valued sequences and continuity and differentiation for functions of one real variable.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 32 and MATH 108.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 130B. Functions of a Real Variable.**Continuation of MATH 130A. This semester will be devoted to a rigorous development of the theory of Riemann integration, infinite series, and sequences and series of functions. Prerequisite: MATH 130A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 134. Functions of a Complex Variable and Applications.**Complex plane; analytic functions; integration and Cauchy's Theorem; sequences and series; residue calculus; applications to potential theory; Fourier and Laplace transforms.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 32.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 150. Introduction to Numerical Analysis.**Numerical solutions of algebraic and transcendental equations; interpolation, inverse interpolation, finite differences, cubic splines, and applications; numerical differentiation and integration; direct and iterative numerical solutions of linear systems; discrete and continuous least squares approximation.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 161. Mathematical Logic.**Advanced study of logic with special application to mathematics. Prerequisite: MATH 108.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 162. Set Theory.**Axiomatic study of set theory. Topics usually considered include: relations and functions; set theoretical equivalence; finite and infinite sets; cardinal arithmetic; ordinal numbers and transfinite induction; variants of the Axiom of Choice. Prerequisite: MATH 108.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 170. Linear Programming.**Theory of linear programming, duality, simplex method, integer programming, applications.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31; MATH 35 or MATH 100.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 190. History Of Mathematics.**Study of the development of mathematical ideas and techniques and their impact on the general course of the history of western civilization.

**Prerequisite:**MATH 31 and upper division status in mathematics.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 193. Capstone Course for the Teaching Credential Candidate.**Reviews the major themes presented in the upper division program in Mathematics, and relates the themes to junior high school and high school curriculum. Required for all subject matter students. Note: Not accepted for credit for non-Teaching Credential students. Prerequisite: Successful completion of at least five of the following: MATH 102, MATH 110A, MATH 110B, MATH 121, MATH 130A, MATH 130B or MATH 190; MATH 110A or MATH 130A may be taken concurrently.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 198. Seminar for Mathematics Tutors.**Supports Sacramento State students who are working in tutorial and related roles in mathematics programs on campus. Focus on questioning as a fundamental strategy for teaching mathematics, on classroom observation, and on communication among mathematics instructors in support of effective teaching and learning.

**Note:**May be repeated up to two times for credit.

**Prerequisite:**Students must be working as tutors in a campus-based program.

**Graded:**Credit / No Credit.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 199. Special Problems.**Individual projects or directed reading. Open only to those students who appear competent to carry on individual work. Admission to this course requires the approval of the faculty member under whom the individual work is to be conducted, in addition to the approval of the advisor and the Department Chair.

**Graded:**Graded (CR/NC Available).

**Units:**1.0 - 6.0.

**MATH 210A. Algebraic Structures.**General algebraic systems and concepts; groups. Prerequisite: MATH 110B.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 210B. Algebraic Structures.**Fields; vector spaces; Galois theory. Prerequisite: MATH 210A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 220A. Topology.**Point set topology, continuity, compactness, connectedness. Prerequisite: MATH 130B.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 220B. Topics In Topology.**Continuation of MATH 220A with topics selected from: General topology/Foundations, Geometric Topology, Continuum Theory, Homology Theory, Homotopy Theory, Topological Dynamics. Note: May be taken twice with approval of the graduate coordinator. Prerequisite: MATH 220A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 230A. Real Analysis.**Metric topology; the theory of the derivative; measure theory. Prerequisite: MATH 130B.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 230B. Real Analysis.**Continuation of MATH 230A, with topics selected from: Theory of the integral, including Riemann, Riemann Stieltjes, and Lebesque integrals. Note: May be taken twice with approval of the graduate coordinator. Prerequisite: MATH 230A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 234A. Complex Analysis.**Complex numbers, complex functions, analytic functions, complex integration, harmonic functions. Prerequisite: MATH 130B; MATH 105B or MATH 134 is recommended.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 234B. Topics in Complex Analysis.**Continuation of MATH 234A with topics selected from: Partial Fractions and Infinite Products, Entire Functions, Riemann Zeta Function, Normal Families, Riemann Mapping Theorem, Conformal Mapping of Polygons, Dirihclet Problem, Analytic Continuation. Note: May be taken twice with approval of the graduate coordinator. Prerequisite: MATH 234A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 241A. Methods of Applied Mathematics.**Topics from: Hilbert Space Theory, Operators on Hibert Space, Generalized Functions with Applications to Sturm-Liouville Theory and Partial Differential Equations. Note: May be repeated for credit provided topic is not repeated. Prerequisite: MATH 134 recommended.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 241B. Topics in Applied Mathematics.**Continuation of MATH 241A with topics: Calculus of Variations, Functional Analysis, Dynamical Systems, Integral Equations, Sobolev Spaces, Fourier Analysis, Potential Theory, and Optimal Control Theory. Note: May be taken twice with approval of the graduate coordinator. Prerequisite: MATH 241A.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**3.0

**MATH 299. Special Problems.**Any properly qualified student who wishes to pursue a problem may do so if the proposed subject is acceptable to the supervising instructor and to the student's advisor.

**Graded:**Graded (CR/NC Available).

**Units:**1.0 - 6.0.

**MATH 316. The Psychology of Mathematics Instruction.**A survey course for students in the Blended Program in Mathematics that relates broad areas of educational psychology and theories of learning to instruction in the secondary mathematics classroom. The focus is on practical applications of theories through the design of lesson and unit plans. Students will design learning activities for diverse classes of learners, including English Language Learners, and build and refine assessment plans that include formative assessments. Lecture two hours.

**Prerequisite:**Admission to the Mathematics Blended Program.

**Graded:**Graded Student.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 371A. Schools and Community A.**The first of a two-part sequence supporting student teachers in the Mathematics Blended Program. Focus is on strategies for secondary mathematics instruction, the process of reflection on teaching, communication among mathematics teachers in support of effective teaching and learning, strategies for engagement, questioning, creating a safe classroom environment, classroom management, assessment, and familiarity with school and community resources. Emphasis on issues related to English Language Learners, special needs students, and intervention strategies. Seminar two hours.

**Corequisite:**Enrollment in EDTE 470A.

**Graded:**Credit / No Credit.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 371B. Schools and Community B.**The second of a two-part sequence supporting student teachers in the Mathematics Blended Program. Focus is on strategies for secondary mathematics instruction, the process of reflection on teaching, communication among mathematics teachers in support of effective teaching and learning, strategies for engagement, questioning, creating a safe classroom environment, classroom management, assessment, and familiarity with school and community resources. Emphasis on issues related to English Language Learners, special needs students, and intervention strategies. Seminar two hours.

**Corequisite:**Enrollment in EDTE 470B.

**Graded:**Credit / No Credit.

**Units:**2.0

**MATH 500. Culminating Experience.**Directed reading programs for master's candidates preparing for written comprehensive examinations.

**Prerequisite:**Advanced to candidacy and permission of the graduate coordinator.

**Graded:**Thesis in Progress.

**Units:**1.0 - 3.0.